Ernst Schumacher, University of Bern
Prof.em of Chemistry, Dep. Chemistry and Biochemistry

This site presents a quantitative Lewis model of molecular structure, using G.E. Kimball's free [spherical electron probability] clouds

Note: Drawings of "electron clouds" or "orbitals" on a molecular skeleton in any approximation represent helpful visualizations, not the "truth"! The same holds for the not existing "bonding sticks" and the arbitrary cores.

Orbital surfaces are the set of points at a selected amplitude of the spatial wavefunction φ, which is unlimited. Computed by Gaussian03™, drawn by WebMO™. Cores are arbitrary. ⟨φ|φ⟩ would show density surfaces (like those at right) of similar shape.

Kimball's free clouds are simple computa-tional tools, explained in these pages. Their surface is the set of points at the expected radius ⟨φ|r|φ⟩ of an unlimited s-type density distribution for every sphere (Tutorials). [He] cores are computed, too. Program from ES with Mathematica™.

Both charge distributions give nearly the same Vee, Vne.

11. April 2009, 21:20:32

17 August 2017
Stereo of Lewis/Kimball Model for Lorazepam